"..... after the coming of Monotheism such deities were rudely identified with the Christian Devil, it was a natural consequence that quite a number of the animals formerly sacred to the inhabitants of Olympus and Walhal should now he devoted to the service of His Satanic Majesty. This is particularly true of the goat, very closely associated with the Devil. The chief reason is to be sought in the goat-shaped daemons of the ancient Mediterranean religion, gods like Pan, Faunus and the gay followers of Dionysus and partakers of his revels. Personifying, as they unquestionably do, the ever reproductive powers of nature, they were for that very reason held in especial abhorrence by the propagandists of the new faith; and the goat, which, because of its amorous qualities, had been deemed worthy of representing the powers of life-giving nature, quite naturally passed into the service of the Devil, once Nature herself was considered as something satanic. At all events, I am inclined to believe that this set of ideas is fundamentally Mediterranean ...."

Krappe, A. The Science of Folk-Lore, p.259-60.


"Plutarch mentions, that in the reign of Tiberius, an extraordinary voice was heard near the Echinades, in the Ionian sea, which exclaimed, that the great Pan was dead. This was readily believed by the Emperor, and the astrologers were consulted; but they were unable to explain the meaning for so supernatural a voice, which probably proceeded from the imposition of one of the courtiers who attempted to terrify Tiberius." Lempriere.

            "This event occurred, supposedly in the first century A.D., during the reign of Tiberius, in a Roman world in which the rationalistic and evolutionary approach to religion had already done much to bring death not only to Pan but to many of the other greater and lesser Gods of the Greek Pantheon."

Robert B. Palmer, in the Introduction, to Dionyus, Myth and Cult, W.F.Otto, p. x. 

A cry went out through late antiquity: "Great Pan is dead!" Plutarch reported it in his "On the failure of the Oracles, " yet the saying has itself become oracular, meaning many things to many people in many ages. One thing was announced: nature had become deprived of its creative voice. It was no longer an independent living force of generativity. What had had soul lost it: or lost was the psychic connection with nature. With Pan dead, so too was Echo; we could no longer capture consciousness through reflecting within our instincts. They had lost their light and fell easily to asceticism, following sheepishly without instinctual rebellion their new shepherd, Christ, with his new means of management. Nature no longer spoke to us-- or we could no longer hear. The person of Pan the mediator, like an ether who invisibly enveloped all natural things with personal meaning, with brightness, had vanished... When Pan is alive then nature is too, so the owl's hoot is Athena and the mollusk on the shore is Aphrodite... When Pan is dead, then nature can be controlled by the will of the new God, man, modeled in the image of Prometheus or Hercules, creating from it and polluting in it without a troubled conscious... As the human loses personal connection with a personified nature and personified instinct, the image of Pan and the image of the devil merge. Pan never died, say many commentators on Plutarch, he was repressed... Pan still lives... in the repressed which returns, in the psychopathologies of instinct which assert themselves, as Roscher indicates, primarily in the nightmare and its associated erotic, demonic, and panic qualities."

James Hillman, A BLUE FIRE: pp.97-98 (originally in "Pan": 24-25,33, 54)


The Renaissance alchemical writer Clovis Hesteau de Nuysemant described Orpheus' 
invocation of Pan: 

Pan, the strong, the subtle, the whole, the universal; 
All air, all water, all earth, and all immortal fire,
 Thou who sittest upon the same throne with time, 
In the lower, middle, and upper kingdom, 
Conceiving, begetting, producing, guarding all; 
First in all and of all, thou who comest to the end of all, 
Seed of fire, of air, of earth, and of the waves, 
Great spirit enlivening all the limbs of the world, 
Who goest about from all to all changing natures,
 Lodging as the universal soul within all bodies, 
To which you give existence and movement and life, 
Proving by a thousand effects thy infinite power.

The Dead Pan


            Gods of Hellas, gods of Hellas,

            Can ye listen in your silence?

            Can your mystic voices tell us

            Where ye hide? In floating islands,

            With a wind that evermore

            Keeps you out of sight of shore?

                                    Pan, Pan is dead.


Elizabeth Barrett Browning


            D.P. Walker,    'This legend of the death of Pan would be a good symbol in which to study Christian attitudes to pagan gods. Its source is Plutarch, De Defectu orac., 418e." etc

D.P.Walker, Orpheus the Theologian, p. 113.


            The Nymphs are Water Beings, naturally connected to Dionysos.

            The Satyrs are shown producing wine - but they point to the HEAT in the Wine, the Fire in the Water, and to Sexuality and Blood.

            But this does not include SILENUS (SILENOI) who is/are often shown at the Initiation of Dionysos.

            "...his archaic companions..." Kerenyi.

            They, like the Centaurs with which they share certain features, are theriomorphic.


            In his book, Rouse, W.H.D. Greek Votive Offerings, we read that the God PAN is offered a CRAB, as a votive offering.Why a Crab to Pan?


44. Pan is the son of Mercury; his head and body form the hieroglyph of the mercury of the philosophers (p.126), at once solar and lunar. The star on the right is the hieroglyph of the harmoniac salt, the third component of the Art (which is often called the Art of Music).

Anon., 14th century, Biblioteca Mediceo-Laurenziana, Florence, Ms. Ashburn 1166, f.18.

Plate 40, in De Rola, Alchemy. 


            "PAN was the god of shepherds, of huntsmen, and all the inhabitants of the country. He was the son of Mercury, by Dryope, according to Homer. Some give him Jupiter and Callisto for parents, others Jupiter and Ybis or Oneis. Lucian, Hyginius, &c. support that he was the son of Mercury and Penelope, the daughter of Icarius, and that the god gained the affections of the princess under the form of a goat, as she tended her father's flocks on mount Taygetus, before her marriage with the king of Ithaca. Some authors maintain that Penelope became mother of Pan during the abscence of Ulysses in the Trojan war, and that he was the offspring of all the suitors that frequented thr palace of Penelope, whence he received the name of Pan, which signifies all or every thing. Pan was a monster in appearance, he had two small horns on his head, his complexion was ruddy, his nose flat, and his legs, thighs, tail, and feet, were those of a goat. The education of Pan was entrusted to a nymph of Arcadia, called Sinoe, but the nurse, according to Homer, terrified at the sight of such a monster, fled away and left him. He was wrapped up in the skin of beasts by his father, and carried to heaven, where Jupiter and the gods long entertained themselves with the oddity of his appearance. Bacchus was greatly pleased with him, and gave him the name of Pan. The god of shepherds chiefly resided in Arcadia, where the woods and the most rugged mountains were his habitation. He invented the flute with seven reeds, which he called Syrinx, in honor of a beautiful nymph of the same name, to whom he attempted to offer violence and who was changed into a reed. He was continually employed in deceiving the neighbouring nymphs, and often with success. Though deformed in his shape and features, yet he had the good fortune to captivate Diana, and of gaining her favor, by transforming himself into a beautiful white goat. He was also enamoured of a nymph of the mountain called Echo, by whom he had a son called Lynx. He also paid his addresses to Omphale, queen of Lydia, and it is well known in what manner he was received. [Vid. Omphale.] The worship of Pan was well established, particularly in Arcadia, where he gave oracles on mount Lycæus.. His festivals, called by the Greeks Lycæa, were brought to Italy by Evander, and they were well known at Rome by thename of the Lupercalia. [Vid. Lupercalia.] The worship, and the different functions of Pan, are derived from the mythology of the ancient Egyptians. This god was one of the eight great gods of the Egyptians, who ranked before the other 12 gods, whom the Romans called Consentes. He was worshipped with the greatest solemnity over all Egypt. His statues represented him as a goat, not because he was really such, but this was done for mysterious reasons. He was the emblem of fecundity, and they looked upon him as the principle of all things. His horns, as some observe, represented the rays of the sun, and the brightness of the heavens was expressed by the vivacity and the ruddiness of his complextion. The star which he wore on his breast, was the symbol of the firmament, and his hairy legs and feet denoted the inferior parts of the earth, such as the woods and plants. Some suppose that he appeared as a goat because when the goats fled into Egypt, in their war against the giants, Pan transformed himself into a goat, an example which was immediately followed by all the deities. Pan, according to some, is the same as Faunus, and he is the chief of all the Satyrs. Plutarch mentions, that in the reign of Tiberius, an extraordinary voice was heard near the Echinades, in the Ionian sea, which exclaimed, that the great Pan was dead. This was readily believed by the Emperor, and the astrologers were consulted; but they were unable to explain the meaning for so supernatural a voice, which probably proceeded from the imposition of one of the courtiers who attempted to terrify Tiberius. In Egypt, in the town of Mendes, which word also signifies a goat, there was a sacred goat kept with the most ceremonious sanctity. The death of this animal was always attended with the greatest solemnities, and like that of another Apis, became the cause of a universal mourning. As Pan usually terrified the inhabitants of the neighbouring country, that kind of fear which often seizes men, and which is only ideal and imaginary, has received from him the name panic fear. This kind of terror has been exemplified not only in individuals, but in numerous armies, such as that of Brennus, which was thrown into the greatest consternation at Rome, without any cause or plausable reason.." Lempriere.

Sources:Ovid.Fast.1,v.396.1.2,v.277.Met.1,v.698.- Virg.G.1,v,17,Aen.8,v.343.G.3,v.392.-Juv.2,v.142.-Paus.8,c.30.-Ital.13,,c.-Liv.1,c.5,-Dionys.Hal.1.-Herodot.2,c.46 & 145, &c.-Diod.1.-Orpeheus hymn.10.-Homer. 

The Greek God, PAN 

"Golden-horned Pan, attendant of grim Dionysus, while roaming the wooded mountains, in his powerfulhand held a staff and with the other siezed the shrill voiced hollow syrinx, and beguiled the heart of the nymphs. Playing on the syrinx his shrill song, he brought terror to men, to all the woodcutters, and terror overcame them when theysaw the frightful body ofthis supernatural creaturespringing forward in frenzy. And now the finalty of chill deathwould have siezed them all except thatwild Artemis, who kept dread rancor in her heart against him, set a limit to his overpowering force. She is the one you should pray to, so that she may become your helper. "

      Eusebius cited by Borgeaud, The cult of Pan...p117 

      "Panic, especially at night when the citadel darkens and the heroic ego sleeps, is a direst participation mystique in nature, a fundamental, even ontological experience of the world as alive and in dread. Objects become subjects; they move with life while one is oneself paralyzed with fear. When existance is experienced through instinctual levels of fear, aggression, hunger, or sexuality, images take on compelling life of their own. The imaginal is never more vivid than when we are connected with it instinctually. The world alive is of course animism; that this living world is divine and imaged by different gods with attributes and characteristics is polytheistic pantheism. That fear, dread, horror are natural is wisdom. In Whitehead's term "nature alive" means Pan, and panic flings open a door into this reality."


            Hillman p.33, Pan and the Nightmare


Some relevant texts:

 Pan and the Nightmare by Wilhelm Heinrich Roscher and James Hillman (1972; reprint Spring Publications, Dallas, 1988)

 The Cult of Pan in Ancient Greece by Philippe Borgeaud (1979, reprint U of Chicago Press, 1988)

 Jitterbug Perfume by Tom Robbins

 The Findhorn Garden Book by The Findhorn Community (Harper and Row, New York 1975)

 Hermes and His Children by Rafael Lopez Pedraza (Daimon Verlag, Switzerland 1989) And elsewhere:Goat resources on the Web

PANIC - The God PAN. Gemini Rising, Mercury Ruler of Chart.

Humpty Dumpty, as The Fool (Arcanum 1 and 22) about to fall over the precipice. Alchemical Egg.

Humpty Dumpty sat on the Wall,

Humpty Dumpty had a great fall.

All the Kings horses and all the Kings men

Couldn't put Humpty together again.

4 Elements. ABRAXAS . (JOKO T.) 

PANIC. The Great God Pan.A form of MIN. Gemini Rising/Mercurius, is the Ruler of my chart.and therefor there are many aspects of Pan in my life.Campbell, p. 81 compares Pan to Min, in that they are both Ithyphallic, in Egypt and in Greece - also DIONYSOS and the castratory ecstasies of KYBELE...






          In the Homeric "Hymn to Pan," we find a passage concerning Hermes in which this god is in the particular situation of being in servitude to a mortal.

          The Homeric Hymn to Pan tells of Hermes coming to Arcadia: 

They sing of the blessed gods and high Olympus and choose to tell of such a one as luck-bringing Hermes above the rest, and how he is the swift messenger of all the gods, and how he came to Arcadia, the land of many springs and mother of flocks, there where his sacred place is as god of Cyllene. For there, though a god, he used to tend curly-fleeced sheep in the service of a mortal man, because there fell on him and waxed strong melting desire to wed the rich-tressed daughter of Dryops, and there he brought about the merry marriage. And in the house she bore Hermes a dear son who nom his birth was marvellous to look upon, with goat's feet and two horns - a noisy, merrylaughing child. 1 

This child was Pan. 

Callimachus recorded the similar situation of Hermes' brother Apollo, in servitude to a mortal king. 

Phoebus and Nomius we call him, ever since the time when it

I. Hesiod, The Homeric Hymns and Homerica, op. cit., XIX, "To Pan," p. 445.


by Amphrysus he tended the yoke-mares, fired with love of young Admetus.2

Now the difference between these two styles of male servitude has been observed by Kerenyi, who says of Hermes:


A story resembling that of Apollo's servitude to King Admetos in Thessaly was told also of Hermes... The story concerning Hermes, on the other hand, was set in Arcadia. Hermes pastured sheep for a mortal master, and whilst so doing, fell in love with a nymph, the "nymph of Dryops." It is not stated that Dryops was Hermes' mortal master, but he seems to have been so.3


Of Apollo, Kerenyi says:


In a later version of the story of Apollo's servitude to Admetos, the two were bound together by love. There were many love-stories concerning Apollo, the greater number and the most famous of which ended tragically - whether the object of the god's love was a boy or a girl. The reason that boys were numbered amongst the god's reputed lovers was that he himself was the god of just that age at which boys used to leave their mother's tutelage and live together.

Their younger year-groups were subordinate to the older ones. They also attached themselves to individual older men. For boys as well as for girls this was the age of fugitive bloom. The tales represent Apollo's love, for a person of either sex, as having been very dangerous.4


If we carry his observations further, we begin to discern two kinds of man-to-man relationships. The image of Apollo with Admetus - where the relationship is direct - presents the

 2. Callimachus, Hymns and Epigrams, Loeb Classical Library, trans. A.W.Mair (London: Heinemann, 1912), Hymn II, "To Apollo," p. 53.

3. Kerenyi, The Gods of the Greeks, op. cit., p. 173.

4. Ibid., p. 139.




background of adolescent initiation and, through the resemblance of Hyakinthos to the boy Apollo,5 the invention of pederasty. The image of Hermes with Dryops gives a different picture, for the relationship was indirect: the story tells us that Hermes love was for the "Nymph of Dryops," a movement in and through fantasy (nymph). The outcome of this indirect relationship is the birth of a god - the great god Pan, a child of Hermes with the nymph of a mortal king.


These two images of Hermes and Apollo suggest relationships of importance for psychology. We can leave what the literature tells us about a god falling in love with a mortal, and turn to what this suggests psychologically: a relationship between two men ruled by the archetypal patterns of gods. We have the image of Hermes loving Dryops through a nymph and, in contrast, the image of Apollo loving Admetus directly. As my main concem in this chapter is with Hermes and the birth of Pan, I shall keep Apollo as a contrasting bas-relief to help us learn from these two models something about men's relationships.

In modern psychology, the conceptual frame has placed homosexuality within a sterile causalism that tries to understand it in terms of personal history. Undoubtedly psychology has seen homosexuality under the pressure imposed by Western culture's repression and has been unable to see it in relation to man's nature, his biology, expressed through the possibilities of the different archetypes. Thus an archetypal view of homoerotica has been missed. Psychology's conceptual coinages are word-facades taken from 'scientific' fantasies but, in reality, they are a cover for a basic component in the history of Western culture. Without wishing to value-judge the scientific causalistic approach, it nevertheless occludes the perspective toward tracking down other archetypes that, during a lifetime, can take over men's relationships. Two of these archetypal situations are precisely our interest.

Recently there has been a changing attitude to eros among

5.       Ibid., p. 139.


men and there have been attempts to modify the focus we have inherited. For example, we can read in Time how the Jesuits have tried to amend their rules and traditions among men of their Order: "Under the old rule of tactus, Jesuit seminarians were forbidden even to put an arm on the shoulder of a buddy; now they greet one another with warm abrazos."6

There is no doubt it is of historical importance to reflect upon erotica among men. Some of its historicity has been worked out by D.P. Walker in his introduction to his book, The Ancient Theology. 7 There we see that the sudden repression of erotica among men in the early days of Christianity (St. Paul) is very much at the foundation of Western culture. Walker offers a mode for reflecting this repression, a repression that has become a seed of constant conflict at the core of our culture. It is a conflict we psychologists have to be aware of and deepen our insights into in order to be able to reflect from a deeper perspective and amend the jargon we have inherited in modern psychology. It is one thing to view homo-erotica as we have inherited it, and quite another to view it archetypally. These two views of homo-erotica (the inherited view and the archetypal view) obviously bring totally different results to psychotherapy. The psychological jargon applied to men's relationships - 'latent homosexuality,' 'negative mother complex,' 'transferential homosexuality,' etc. has been too easily accepted, and the gods who we behind the struggle in which many men are involved remain undetected. The only inadequate recourse is to try by means of these cliches to 'control' this struggle introduced by the gods themselves.

If we want to improve our reading of the archetypes, we can hardly accept a psychotherapy which is biased toward man-to-man relationships, tending to see them only in terms of illness to be cured or controlled. This attitude misplaces illness; and more importantly, it excludes the possibility of seeing through to the gods who, expressing aspects of nature, are behind these

6. Time, April 23, 1973, "Cover Story."

7. Walker, The Ancient Theology, op. cit., p. 8.


relationships. What appears in the personal picture as 'messes' are more likely frictions brought about by a peculiar mixing of archetypes, the expression of a nature trying to hold itself what we call homosexuality. Seen in this way, psychotherapy could encourage psychic movement by following the dominant archetype in which erotica among men appears, and it would accept this dominant as the very vehicle for psychotherapeutic movement.

We have found two examples that offer more differentiated models for male relationships: the image of Hermes with Dryops in contrast with the homosexual pastoral relationship of Apollo with Admetus. Further archetypal patterns of men's relationships would appear in other mythological figures, e,g., Zeus and Ganymede.

But psychotherapy, apart from the conceptual jargon already mentioned, has done very little exploration of eros among men.

In reading The Freud/Jung Letters,8 we can hardly overlook the fact that the relationship between these two pioneers (and the group of men around them) had a strong missionary component.9 They had found a common cause and, for a certain time, the relationship depended on the interests of their cause. But now, in this part of the century, we are aware that we have not inherited enough from these two geniuses of modern psychology and their man-to-man relationship to help us understand psychically what we are dealing with here. And this very lack is also part of the inheritance.

Moreover, if we look at the first meeting of these two pioneers in Vienna in 1907, in spite of Jung's hermetic nature, in this scene we have a picture of two men trying to gain power

8. The Freud/Jung Letters, ed. William McGuire, trans. R. Manheim and R.F.C. Hull (London: Hogarth and Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1974).

9. Thanks to the gods, both Freud and Jung seem to have exhausted during the first half of life the appearance of missionarism in psychology. Evidently they needed the missionary component to 'hold' themselves in the early years of this century. Nowadays when a psychologist expresses himself at the missionary level, one feels it as a mockery and that the archetype is worn-out, exhausted.


over each other. 10 Freud used his 'scientism' and his discovery of the transference within a patriarchal fantasy. Jung exercised his power through occult phenomena. Their friendship shows few traces of having much relationship to each other's psyche.The relationship was based on building the pillars of modern psychology, through their common cause, case material, technique, and theory, but power intervened and ultimately destroyed their friendship.

Their relationship and conflict, union and separation, are inheritance of their followers, and in the different analytical societies we can see a continuation of the same power-game. As the missionary drive has faded, the profession meets behind the facade of a Secret Society, a facade disguising the lack of psychic relationship. The internal conflicts have been accepted openly in terms of a power-game, while something as important as the lack of eros has not been denounced or even discussed.

The classic image of Hermes suggests the indirection of falling in love with another man's fantasy: the fantasy/erotica provided by the nymph. This could be the basis of what has been called a hermetic relationship between two men. This indirection, through a nymph, belonging to the archetypal realm of Hermes, is in contrast to Apollo's direct and idealized conception of love among men. Apollo's archetypal realm allows us to perceive homosexuality in terms of initiation during adolescence. We can also see the god behind regressions into this phase of adolescent initiation with its sometimes proselytizing Apollonic side. By means of the Apollonic perspective we can see through to the archetypal realm, the basic ground from which the erotica of the whole personality stems. The tale of Hermes with Dryops, however, enables us to see that this indirection in a man-to-man relationship brings its own result. This result is profoundly important for psychology and psychotherapy: the birth and epiphany of a god - Pan.


10      Jung, Memories, Dreams, Reflections, op. cit., p. 152; for Freud's reaction to the incident, see Appendix I, pp. 333-34.


Pan is a 'dead' god, and, though we do not worship him he is still present in all of us. His 'death' marked a change the imagination of Western culture from the moment recorded the cry of lamentation that resounded when the classical world was shocked by the news: "Great Pan is dead." This news has often been considered a turning point in Western history, later leading to the legend of Pan dying in the moment Jesus Christ was mounted on the cross.

"Great Pan is dead" would have been a historical, factual death, a death pointing in the direction we have been implying, had it not been for another cry of lamentation. It is a cry challenging our sense of historicity, uttered in a time as historically extreme as the cry in Plutarch's time. It was a Victorian voice, the voice of an English poetess, that spoke when the fantasies of the theory of evolution were at their peak. By one of those historical curiosities she lived in London's Harley Street before it was taken over by the first wave of twentieth-century psychoanalysts and psychotherapists.

In her poem, "The Dead Pan," Elizabeth Barrett Browning


Gods of Hellas, gods of Hellas,

Can ye listen in your silence?

Can your mystic voices tell us

Where ye hide? In floating islands,

With a wind that evermore

Keeps you out of sight of shore?

Pan, Pan is dead.


Her lamentation 12 does not tell of a missing link in the fog of evolution, but one missing in the history of Western culture: Pan as the missing link to the physical body. And more: it would be

11      Plutarch, Moralia, 419 A-E.

12. I simply want to present the lamentation as it is and not try to 'analyze' the contents of the verse psychologically, e.g., "floating islands," "wind," and "out of sight of shore," as data from which Pan can be insighted as an autonomous complex.


useless for psychology to hear in this verse an echo of the lament recorded by Plutarch, were it not for Jung's exploration and work on the collective unconscious that led him to tell the world and students of psychology that the ancient gods are not dead. On the contrary, they are very much alive in our unconscious, though, because of historical repression, they tend to appear at the core of our complexes, sometimes autonomously in neuroses and psychoses, and in physical illnesses. 13 In her lamentation, the English poetess expresses a dim awareness of the god Pan as an autonomous complex in a historical and geographical context seemingly far removed from the one in which the classical pagan gods manifested themselves.

These elements surrounding Pan - the cry recorded by Plutarch to Elizabeth Barrett Browning's lamentation - are part of the cultural legacy of Western man and can be included in our studies of psychology. This is possible as we have inherited Jung's theory of the unconscious, based on the historicity of the complexes and their pathology. However, at this point in the century we have more nourishing food which, as long as we bear in mind the pathological side of the gods, brings a reflection from another angle by showing the continuity of these so-called dead gods throughout the history of Western culture. Jean Seznec writes:

In the preceding chapters we have studied in a general way the factors which determined the survival of the gods in the Middle Ages. The pagan divinities served as a vehicle for ideas so profound and so tenacious that it would have been impossible for them to perish.

That being so, why do men too often speak of the "death of the gods" with the decline of the ancient world, and their "resurrection" in the dawn of the Italian Renaissance? We must remember that it was merely the content of the images of the gods which survived. The garment of the classical

Jung, CW 13, para. 54.


form had disappeared, having gradually been shed in favor of the wearers. And, in consequence, until our own day, history has failed to recognize them.14


But we psychotherapists cannot afford to fail to recognize them. The results in psychotherapy would be disastrous, knowing as we do that these gods carry complexes which appear in symptoms and illnesses. We should be indebted to the modern Scholars, in particular to those connected with the Warburg Institute in London (Seznec, Yates, Wind, Panofsky, Saxl, Gombrich, Walker, etc.). Their work, with its emphasis on the Renaissance, offers new psychological food, stimulation and reflection. They offer us a scholarly research that has a more direct approach to the archetypes through their interest in images (the history of Western culture and its art).

The reflections that this scholarship transmits to us revitalize the spirit and feed the fantasy so that what might be going on in psychotherapy today, historically speaking, could be seen in terms of a new renascence (Renaissance), perhaps psychotherapy's greatest chance. These scholars are concerned solely with the roots of Western culture, with the North/South conflict, a conflict in every Western soul. They are not occupied with the East as were many scholars in the early part of the century, an interest that led to studies on comparative symbolism and comparative religion. That scholarship had an immense influence on Jung's generation and still serves - to the neglect of Western cultural imagery - as the basic curriculum for learning the amplificatory method used in Jungian psychology.

Furthermore, the work of the modern scholars gives us the feeling that the archetypes of the collective unconscious are not so remote. If the archetypes are considered from the ego point of view and the insights are symbolical, then, of course, the result is a sense of remoteness. But modern scholarship has shrunk

 14. Seznec, The Survival of the Pagan Gods, trans. B.F. Sessions, op. cit., p.149.



 this distance by retraining the psyche to read the image. We are offered a new hermeneutic which can refresh the study of psychology, enabling us to remain within the complexities and constancies of Western culture when approaching archetypal images as they appear in psychotherapy.

The school in Zurich has its own approach to the appearance in the psyche of this strange god, Pan. Discussion and interpretation of him in dreams and paintings are part of Jungian studies. Although no archetype can be thought of in terms of a standard work, a basic interpretative text, this is most evident in the case of Pan. The relation to this god depends particularly upon each analyst's complexes, history, and attitude, and how the pathology (complexes and history) of the patient expresses Pan's appearance in psychotherapy. Pan is the god of panic, and it is in this manifestation of his pathology that Pan can panic both analyst and patient. Panic in the analytical situation can either be of value within the spectrum of a healing epiphany of this god, or can become uncontrollable, bringing misunderstanding, and at worst, catastrophic results.

Pan creates most panic when his image is presented under the historical disguise of the devil. With this sort of appearance in psychotherapy, there is only a very slight possibility of reverting to the image of the "God of Hellas" as seen by the English poetess. In the longing expressed through the imagery of her poem, she may have been able to hold her madness by reviving the image of Pan as a true god, and not merely as one side of the split between god and the devil. 15 (We have to remember that throughout Manichean Christianity Pan alone has carried the 'shadow of God.')


15. A different view of the compensatory function of Pan is offered by Edgar Wind:

In the ever-changing balance des dieux the gods reveal their Protean nature: but the very fact that each god contains his opposite in himself, and can change into it when occasion demands, makes him shadow forth the nature of Pan in whom all opposites are one.

Pagan Mysteries in the Renaissance, Chapter XIII, "Pan and Proteus" (Penguin: Harmondsworth, 1967), p. 199.


 Pan is the god of nightmare and epilepsy, and the discovery masturbation 16 was attributed to him. When reacting to a patient's nightmare, there is a difference between trying to analyze it and accepting it as the epiphany of a god under one of his surnames, Ephialtes, 17 Pan's connection to epilepsy points to the possibilities of research into a psychotherapy of this 'mal,' of opening the continent of the physical body for an exploration which aims to improve the equilibrium in this illness; or, to put it mythologically - to make a more favorable connection to the god who was conceived as being at the origin of the illness.

As the discoverer of masturbation, Pan gives a frame of reference for the whole gamut of masturbatory fantasies, from the most extreme obsessive-compulsive ones to those that bring a relationship to the body; from Pan's destructive appearance as an autonomous complex - as the 'Devil' history has taught us to reject - to the possibility of connecting imaginatively to the different gods and goddesses. (In masturbation itself, all the possibilities are there for connecting to the archetypes. ) Here I would like to go further and suggest that, through masturbatory fantasies, the repeated sexual image - reflecting the part of man's nature which does not change18 - can either be accepted, thereby bringing a deeper insight into the personality, or can continue

 16. Hillman, "An Essay on Pan" in Pan and the Nightmare (New York and Zurich: Spring Publications, 1972), p, xxxii. For his fuller reflections upon masturbation see "Toward the Archetypal Model of the Masturbation Inhibition" (1966) in Loose Ends, op. cit.

17. W.H. Roscher, "Ephialtes: A Pathological-Mythological Treatise on the Nightmare in Classical Antiquity," in Pan and the Nightmare (New York and Zurich: Spring Publications, 1972).

18. The idea of human nature having two parts - a part that does not change and a part that moves - is valuable for psychotherapy. My thoughts regarding this idea were stimulated first by the Spanish poet, Antonio Machado in his book, Juan de Mairena. Later I found similar ideas in Hermetica, trans. Walter Scott (London: Dawson, 1968), Libellus II, p. 135f., in thc discussion between Hermes Trismegistus and Asclepius. Although in another chapter of this book I discuss these two parts in an easicr fashion, let me put in a nutshell my thoughts in this respect. It is of obvious practical value in psychotherapy to have an awareness of these two elements, so that we can detect what in human nature does not change, so as to localize our psychotherapeutic aims in that part which moves.


obsessively with no insight. Moreover, masturbation is the field where new sexual imagery first occurs. Within the struggle with masturbation, the appearance of these new images - the part of man's nature which moves - enables the self-detection of new psychic movers. But this is not all. Though it may seem an awkward way, masturbation offers the possibility of making a self-diagnosis of one's psychological state and illness by becoming more precise about what fantasies are at work in one's actual psychological movement. Masturbation has been seen mostly from perspectives far removed nom the archetypal sphere of Pan. In any case, there is no denying that masturbation is the sexuality attributed to this son of Hermes, and that Pan rules the physical body of our psyche. Masturbation is the basic sexuality and one of nature's wonders, for it at once connects man's sexual images and his physical and emotional body. When there is masturbation in a dream, it is an epiphany of Pan, expressing the psychic need to recognize and accept what has been most repressed by Christianity: basic sexuality and the emotional body. One has to recognize masturbation from within this complexity. After two millennia of repression, masturbation, which had its place in the great mythologies of ancient times, has reappeared in this century's literature: James Joyce brought masturbation and masturbatory fantasies and imagery into Ulysses.

This can be seen as an example of the revival of a pagan god in the psyche of a twentieth-century man.

To go on with our theme of Pan and pathology, we see that he is able to carry the lunatic, as shown by the image of Pan carrying Selene,19 This image suggests that the answer of Pan's psychology to the lunatic aspect of the psyche is simply to carry it.

Needless to say the implication is that it is Pan in us who carries our lunacy. Among his nymph-fantasies, Echo was the most beloved, who, in having no physical existence, seems to provide the most intimate element in Pan: and it is in Echo that Pan reflects the instinctual essence of his godhead. Pan and Echo are

19. Virgil, Georgica, 3.391.


 complemantary. Pan's echoes have a repercussion in the soul, the soul at Pan's body level.

The association of Pan and Echo leads into another myth, that of Narcissus, who, in fleeing from Pan's Echo (and therefore rejecting Pan), began an infatuation with his own image and became what is called today 'an acute or chronic psychotic case.' In another tale, that of Eros and Psyche recorded by Apuleius, Pan and Echo were nearby on the riverbank when Psyche wanted to kill herself. This tale, in a very subtle way, tells us that they rescued her from this suicidal attempt. So the classical myths remind us of two sides of Pan's Echo: that of making Narcissus mad, and that of helping to rescue Psyche. These two sides of Echo, one showing pathology and the other a psychotherapy, have reappeared in this century in what we could call the 'echo conditions' of the psyche.

Eugen Bleuler 20 described echolalia and echopraxia as secondary symptoms of schizophrenia. The genius of an American psychotherapist, Carl Rogers, introduced Echo, the nymph of Pan, son of Hermes, as a method into his psychotherapeutic practice. Here we have two pictures belonging to this century's psychology: a psychiatrist who diagnosed a condition; and a psychotherapist who, without diagnosing, therapeutically approached the psyche - through a personal hunch and probably unaware of its archetypal background - with the very instrument diagnosed by the psychiatrist as a secondary symptom. These pictures are worth keeping in mind as they so clearly present two aspects of psychotherapy, two different approaches to illness.

On the one hand, there is always the psychiatric-diagnostic approach and, on the other, there is the therapeutic approach through Pan. Together they have provided me with a historical reference to frame my own experience and insights into a psychotherapy constellated by Pan.21


20. Eugen Bleuler, Lehrbuch der Psychiairie, 9 Aufl. (Berlin: Springer Verlag, 1955), p. 92.

21. My own therapeutic experience of Echo happened more through Bleuler's small reference than Rogers' about whom, at the time, I knew nothing.


 The 'happening' of Pan's echo in psychotherapy can constellate a true epiphany of Pan, which is one of the most vivid expressions of the psychotherapeutic relationship. Like cures like, Similis similibus curantur.22 This is where the real symmetry happens, where the dance is, where the psychotherapy of Pan is. It is the expression of two bodies dancing in unison, a psychotherapy of the body. When this happens we can be sure are in the realm where Pan appears in a psychotherapy through body movements, within a sort of dance, constellating the transference which belongs to him.23

The analyst is challenged when the patient's imagery involves archetypes that are outside the archetypal realms with which he or she is familiar. This presents a difficulty in finding an attitude akin to the patient's archetypal background. The work of modern scholars on rhetoric, 24 the different styles of rhetoric as a way to connect to the different archetypes, could be of great help in this direction. We need to know more about archetypal rhetoric and to train ourselves in this. In my discussion of a Pan psychotherapy, it seems to me I have been referring to the 'rhetoric of Pan': Echo, who connects us to the constellation of Pan in psychotherapy.

Jungian analysis has yet to explore a psychotherapy based on the archetypal constellation brought by the patient, and to be acquainted with the classical conception of rhetoric, talismanic


22. I had a patient who confessed that at last her madness had a companion. We discussed the difference between madness accompanied and madness in solitude. Most of the therapy had been based on echo reflection.

23. I appreciate that, in the first edition, this passage stimulated Joan Chodorow, a dance therapist, in her practice; see her paper "Dance/Movement and Body Experience in Analysis" in Jungian Analysis, ed. Murray Stein (Open Court: La Salle, 1982). Actually, I wrote this passage as a result of my experience at the dancing parties I led at the Zurichberg Clinic when I worked there.

24. Yates, The Art of Memory, op. cit.; for the rediscovery of Hermogenes see her Giordano Bruno and the Hermetic Tradition (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1964). In 1970/71 a seminar on the Picatrix was held at Spring Publications. The vivid happenings during this seminar gave a training and insight into the emotions and expressions of the different planets (archetypes), their imagery, talismans, etc.


 medicine, the different ways of connecting to the different gods -the constellations of the different archetypes. These are very old ideas but they are still waiting to be developed by modern psychotherapy. And, in spite of rite fact that Jungian psychology has opened many new doors for psychotherapy, analytical work is mainly conducted through discussion of dreams, paintings, and active imagination, mostly by way of amplifying symbols. So if Pan appears in a dream or painting, bringing with his image an expression of the patient's unconscious demand, the discussion continues with more or less the same attitude. Because Pan has not been allowed to appear with his own rhetoric or style, the interpretation of 'Pan material' is invariably based on the 'devilish' aspect of this god and so the patient is 'warned' of the dangers inherent in Pan. As yet no psychotherapy exists which pays attention to the essential reality that each god (or goddess) needs a different ritual, a different cult, and a living rhetoric.


Let us return to the image of Pan's birth as told in the Homeric Hymn to Pan, keeping to and reflecting from that image. I have suggested that Pan was born of a relationship between two men through their fantasy (nymph). The indirection of this nymphic third can turn a relationship into a threesome situation.

The possible repercussions of such a threesome in a man's soul can scarcely be understood conceptually. But as hermetic relationships they bring their own possibilities for psychotherapy.

Moreover, they bring a different model for therapy itself, i.e., a man-to-man relationship through a nymph resulting in Pan, a god, on whose ground healing can happen. Because the appearance of Pan/Echo in psychotherapy is in itself a repercussion, our understanding here must be determined by the very constellation we are trying to understand. For I do not want to pretend that we can grasp what is going on from a perspective outside the Pan constellation.

Because psychological interpretations about Pan have fol-


lowed the Christian tradition and strongly painted him with colors of the devil, these interpretations tend to fall into discussions about evil, so here I would like to discuss Pan in terms of the psychodynamic of compensation. The compensatory function of the psyche, discovered by Jung in 1907 and which established the modern psychodynamic view of the psyche, is important our discussion of Pan. In one of his passages on compensation, Jung writes:


The psyche is a self-regulating system that maintains its equilibrium just as the body does. Every process that goes too far immediately and inevitably calls forth compensations, and without these there would be neither a normal metabolism nor a normal psyche. In this sense we can take the theory of compensation as a basic law of psychic behavior. Too little on one side results in too much on the other. Similarly, the relation between conscious and unconscious is compensatory.25

Pan was at the center of the repression of the pagan gods, just as he was at the center of the longing for compensation expressed in the poem of the English poetess. It seems that Pan, in terms of the function of compensation, represents an extreme possibility for the psyche to find either a natural self-regulation or enter into madness. But here I would like to stress that it is one thing to have enough awareness to keep an eye on the compensatory function of the psyche with its natural 'self-regulation,' and quite another to accept into psychotherapy the image of Pan. I do not want to say explicitly that modern psychotherapy's theoretical compensatory/complementary approach to Pan tends to constellate the panic side of him, though there is no doubt that, historically, psychic compensation has its validity in the psyche.

Nevertheless, as I have worked out, Pan's appearance in psy-

25. Jung, Modern Man in Search of a Soul, trans. W.S. Dell & C.F. Baynes (London: Kegan, Paul, 1933), op. cit., para. 20.


chotherapy calls for a quite different response: a response coming from Pan in the analyst, a consciousness that includes Pan's healing function, his rhetoric, Echo, and the symmetric dance.

For those who prefer to live a psychotherapy more on the lines of the epiphany of the gods and the archetypes, a basic knowledge of, and feeling for Who's Who in mythology is needed. In the case of Pan, owing to the particular pathologies attributed to him, a historical perspective is essential: that in Christianity, through repression, Pan and the complexes around him became equated with evil and the imagery of the devil. (It is interesting to note that a later Greek tradition tells us that in Hellas there were devils too, 'evildoers' 26 - but these were Titans with souls made of iron and steel.) In Greek classical times neither Pan, nor the chthonic gods of his kind, ever carried a projection even remotely akiin to the Christian one. Though, needless to say, all the gods and goddesses each have their own style of destruction.

The aim of this chapter has been to introduce the imagery of Pan's birth and epiphany into psychotherapy and to discuss his image from the viewpoint of a psychology of the archetypes. I particularly wished to stress the fact that Pan's birth was made possible by two men loving each other through a nymph. The insight that Pan is concerned with the psychotherapy of the body can open a door for a psychotherapeutic approach to the pathologies attributed to him. It can offer, also, a psychotherapeutic approach to the analytical situation in which the patient's homosexuality appears center-stage. Instead of a homosexuality with no psychological body, this approach could provide that same homosexuality with the body psychology of Pan, son of Hermes.

26. Kerenyi, Gods of the Greeks, op. cit., p. 208.